Adana (pronounced [aˈda.na]; Armenian: Ադանա; Ancient Greek: Άδανα, Arabic: أضنة) is a Cilician city in southern Turkey. The city is situated on the Seyhan river, 35 km (22 mi) inland from the north-eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea. It is the administrative seat of the Adana Province and has a population of 1.77 million.
Adana lies in the heart of Cilicia, a distinct geo-cultural region, at a time, was one of the most important regions of the classical world by being crossroads for religions and civilizations. Home to six million people, Cilicia is one of the largest population concentrations in the Near East, as well an agriculturally productive area, owing to its large fertile plain of Çukurova. Adding the large population centers surrounding Cilicia, almost 10 million people reside within 2-hours drive from the Adana city center.
One of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements of the world and with a name unchanged for at least 4-millennia, Adana were a market town at the Cilicia plain and one of the gateways from Europe to the Middle East. The city turned into a powerhouse of Cilicia with the Turkic takeover in 1359. It remained as the capital of the Ramadanid Emirate until 1608, and then the regional center for the Ottoman Empire, Turkey and shortly for the French Cilicia. The city boomed with the breakdown of American Civil War in 1861, and emerged as a hub for international cotton trade. Traditionally a town populated by Armenians and Turks; influx of Assyrians, Greeks, Circassians, Jews and Alawites at this period, made the city one of the most diverse cities of the Empire. Economic, social and cultural growth were halted by the Adana massacre, the Armenian Genocide and the 1921 Cilicia evacuation, all devastated the city in the early 20th century. After the eviction of Christian community, most of the city’s private properties, value-wise, were confiscated in 1923 and were granted to the Muslim/Turks who recently had migrated into the city. After a standstill period, city’s economy again boomed in the 1950s with the construction of the Seyhan Dam, and the growth continued until the 1980s.
Adana in the 21st century, are a center for regional trade, healthcare, public and private services. Agriculture and logistics are significant sectors of the city. The economic decline caused by national policies and de-industrialization since the 1990s is reversing, as the city is gaining momentum with the fairs, festivals and entertainment life. The rivalry between the city’s football clubs, Adanaspor and Adana Demirspor, is getting attraction as being a derby that is rooted in socio-economic divisions.